They represent the authors point of view. Management and Engineering in Rural Areas, Topics: Production economics, Farm management and marketing, Agricultural policies, Agribusiness and agricultural extension, Agritourism and Rural development, Environmental economics, Educational management in Dragos manescu asexual reproduction education and other connected areas.
These two systems were used to classify cost and income items of agricultural enterprises and calculation methods were compared.
The survey data gathered through questionnaires made with selected enterprises constituted the material Dragos manescu asexual reproduction the present study. Current findings revealed that different accounting system used to put forth annual activity outcomes of agricultural enterprises classified enterprise income and cost items in different fashions.
In Laur Accounting System, enterprise costs are classified as fixed and variable costs. On the other hand in FADN system, costs are classified as intermediate consumption, amortizations and external costs. In Laur acciounting system, enterprise success criteria are considered as gross profit, net product and agricultural income. On the other hand in FADN system, gross enterprise profit, enterprise net value-added and enterprise family income are considered as the success criteria.
In ever-developing and changing world, agricultural sector can sustain it significance under free market conditions only with the right prudential decisions.
Such decisions are only be possible with more efficient use of current resources through accurate information and knowledge . Therefore, possible changes should be forecasted and decisions should be made accordingly. Throughout the development process of countries, the ratio of agriculture in Gross National Product GNP is relatively decreasing, but the sector still maintain its significance Dragos manescu asexual reproduction resource-supply to production sector and industry and still provides significant employment opportunities .
Statistical information plays a great role in making right decisions in rural development initiatives of the countries. There are different data systems in every country to have information about the sectors and to formulate future policies. The similar case is also valid for agricultural sector with a significant place in economy of several countries . FADN is an organization allowing the countries to measure the effects of annual activity outcomes of the agricultural enterprises on agricultural enterprises.
There are two basic objectives of FADN system: In FADN system, standard gross profit has been taken as the basis for 20 years in classification of enterprises based on their size and type of business.
Standard Gross Profit SGP is a value expressing the difference between the outcome per hectare or per animal unit of plant and livestock production activities and the variable costs "Dragos manescu asexual reproduction" get this Dragos manescu asexual reproduction. Because of different enterprise patterns of the Union, each member country has a certain threshold value.
In the Union with 25 member countries, 5 million agricultural enterprises constitute the main population and agricultural enterprises selected among them through sampling constitute the coverage of FADN .
The objective of enterprise with an economic activity is to gain maximum profit from that activity.
Enterprises initially calculate the costs and then determine the benefit and incomes of the relevant activity. In Turkey, majority of agricultural enterprises do not keep the accounts of their activities. Therefore, it is quite hard to determine their incomes and consequently to plan their production activities. In Turkey, Laur Dragos manescu asexual reproduction System is generally used in agricultural enterprises.
Since the activities are not recorded, the data gathered are mostly based on farmer declarations. Farmer accounting records in Turkey was initiated in A regional pilot study was performed Dragos manescu asexual reproduction to determine economic structures of agricultural enterprises and another study covering the entire country was performed in Official establishment of Farmer Accounting Data Network in Turkey was initiated in with EU supports.
The implementation was initiated in Dragos manescu asexual reproduction provinces as a pilot implementation. Arrangements were performed in to Table 1. Annual activity
Dragos manescu asexual reproduction of the enterprises cover provinces and enterprises were proportionally distributed to provinces.
There are different income-expense calculation methods in different countries to put forth structural and economic activity outcomes of the agricultural enterprises. The present study was conducted to compare these methods and to put forth the differences between them.
The previous relevant studies constituted the secondary data sources. Annual activity outcomes of the selected agricultural enterprises were calculated with Laur Accounting System commonly used to put forth cost and incomes of the enterprises and European Union Farm Accountancy Data Network FADN system and the results of both systems were comparatively evaluated.
While the Gross Production Value wasThe reason to have different results was because Gross Production Value of Laur was composed of livestock production value, plant production value and productive fixed asset increment PFAI and total output was composed of livestock production value, plant production value and other incomes. Enterprise costs were composed of the total of fixed and variable costs. On the other hand, intermediate consumptions were composed of specific variable costs and general enterprise costs.
While the Gross Product wasGross product was composed of gross production value and out-of-enterprise external agricultural income. On the other hand, gross enterprise income was composed of the difference between total output and main consumption costs and additional current subsidies and arrears of taxes. While the gross product wasGross product was composed of the difference between gross product and enterprise costs.
On the other hand, enterprise net value-added was composed of the difference between gross enterprise income and amortizations. While the agricultural income wasAgricultural income was calculated by subtracting debit interests, rents and sharecropping rates from Dragos manescu asexual reproduction product and adding family labor payment equivalent.
Enterprise family income was calculated by subtracting external costs from enterprise net value-added and adding investment supports and subsidies. While the gross profit wasGross profit was calculated by subtracting enterprise costs from gross production value.
On the other hand, standard gross profit was calculated by subtracting intermediate consumption costs from total output. In agricultural economy researches, generally Laur Accounting System is used in Turkey to assess the activity outcomes of agricultural enterprises. However, this method is commonly used in scientific researches rather than being used in practice . While comparing the annual activity outcomes an enterprise with the other through Laur Accounting Sytem, agricultural income, net product and gross profit are taken into consideration as the basic success criteria.
On the other hand, gross enterprise income, enterprise net value-added and enterprise family income are considered as the basic success criteria in FADN system. In this study, calculations with Laur Accounting System revealed average agricultural income of the sample enterprises asFor efficient agricultural policies, economic structures of actively operating agricultural enterprises should be determined, their production activities should continuously be monitored and their outcomes should be assessed in certain periods.
Therefore, annual records of agricultural enterprises should regularly be kept for reliable investments to be made. In EU countries, FADN system is used to determine annual activity outcomes and income-cost items of agricultural enterprises. In Turkey, Farmer Record System implemented since is a significant indicator for the current structure of agricultural enterprises.
However, this system does not include financial and economic data. There is a need for a system in Turkey to determine economic structures of the enterprises and ultimately to monitor current status and agricultural activities and to make reliable and sustainable agricultural policies. With the FADN system, more accurate and reliable data can be gathered in future years and this system also yields data to be compared with the other systems.
Abstract The paper makes an assessment of the food security situation in Romania, several years after the accession to the European Union. Dragos manescu asexual reproduction approach focuses on certain problems regarding food security assurance at national level, as well as aspects linked to the access to food and the population s nutritional status.
The methodology used is based on the SWOT analysis of the population s food and nutrition security. This started from the current approaches to the food security concept, namely supply availability, supply stability, economic access and food use. In this context, the paper presents certain vulnerabilities of food security for Romania s population; among these vulnerabilities, at the food supply availability level, we can mention the lack of self-sufficiency in certain staple foods, such as meat, fruit, sugar and fish, in which the systematic deficit is covered by imports.
At the same time, the domestic agricultural production instability, mainly in the case of crop production, raises food security problems. As regards the access to food, the low incomes and the income gaps "Dragos manescu asexual reproduction" regions and residence areas generate food insecurity for the low-income population categories, which are most often found in the rural area.
At the same time, the deficient food consumption in quality terms, the high share of calories from cereals and potatoes, as well as the low animal protein intake generate nutritional risks. This approach is part of the larger framework of Romania s Development Strategy for the next 20 years,coordinated by the Romanian Academy.
The approach to the food security and safety theme had in view the much too slow progress of the Romanian agri-food system, the delayed convergence with the performance indicators of the EU member Dragos manescu asexual reproduction, rural poverty maintenance on large areas and last but not least, the existing problems and vulnerabilities in food security assurance for the population. These vulnerabilities emerge from the insufficient agricultural production level, from the domestic supply instability and price volatility, as well as from the deficient access to food of large population categories, under the background of income decrease and poverty in certain areas of the country.
In the recent years, the population s food security problem has come to the foreground again, due to challenges at global level, among which we can mention food demand increase together with the change of the population s
Dragos manescu asexual reproduction from the new emergent states, the non-food uses of agricultural production by bio-fuel production, as well as the impact of climate changes on agricultural production and food supply. Even in the EU countries where food assurance is no longer a problem, food security has become a concern at the level of highly vulnerable communities.
At the same time, most prospective evaluations take into consideration global evolutions with contradictory effects upon food security for the next years. On one hand, as an effect of strong economic growth in the emergent countries, a significant increase of food consumption per capita will take place, and even more important, a modification in the structure of diet, i. At the same time, it is expected that in the next decades the total factor productivity in agriculture will stagnate, due to reaching certain biological limits combined with the unpredictable and increasing climate change effects.
In this context, the evaluation of the food security situation becomes of utmost importance in Romania s case, as due to the still insufficiently used agricultural potential, our country may have an important role in food security assurance at regional level in the years to come, on the condition of solving up its internal problems linked to productivity and competitiveness in agriculture.
The access to food issue and the importance "Dragos manescu asexual reproduction" economic factors conditioning it appeared later on. Gradually, the food security concept evolved, certain authors mentioning the existence of about definitions for this concept, in the early s . Food security can be evaluated at different levels, but most references are made to the macro-economic world, regional or national level and at micro-economic level, i. Depending on the level to which reference is made, the focus is laid on one or several of the four pillars of food security, namely: In the case of using the food security concept at world or national level, the focus is mainly laid the capacity of countries to provide a sufficient agricultural supply to satisfy the population s food and nutritional needs .
At the same time, recent approaches  Dragos manescu asexual reproduction a special importance to food 12 autonomy as food security stability factor, which reduces the vulnerability to the fluctuations of domestic and world agricultural markets.
Yet food availability does not ensure access to food, as the problems linked to the distribution of incomes at society Dragos manescu asexual reproduction can seriously affect the access to food and food security at level implicitly. Hence food security is finally a problem at household or individual level. It is generally considered that food insecurity and hunger are the direct result of poverty.
With the economic growth and increase of incomes, the poor households will have the ability and presumptively Dragos manescu asexual reproduction desire to obtain an adequate diet . Although the household is used as unit of observation in most studies on the population s nutritional
Dragos manescu asexual reproduction, the key problem is nutrition at individual level, particularly in the case of those persons who are considered to be at nutritional risk.
Depending on the context, in this analysis we had in view the two approaches "Dragos manescu asexual reproduction" food security: The set of indicators used represents a combination between the indicators used by the national and international organizations for the assessment of the population s food and nutrition situation.
The indicators used are selected to mostly comprehensively reflect the level of domestic agricultural availabilities and supply stability, as well as aspects in relation to the physical and economic access to food, to food use and elements related to the nutritional situation of population and of vulnerable demographic categories. The investigated data generally.
Domestic agricultural supply availability and stability The food security issue was a permanent concern of the Romanians in the last century, even though Romania is among the European countries with the largest agricultural land areas, thus having significant resources for food production. Romania has significant agricultural areas among the EU member states 14, thousand hectaresi. Q9Q reproduce.
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