To study the nature and quality of relationships between gay father families and their surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins. Parents in 40 gay father families with 3—9-year-old children born through surrogacy.
Relationships between parents, children, surrogates, and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins were examined using a semistructured interview. The majority of fathers were content with the level of contact they had with the surrogate, with those who were discontent wanting more contact. Fathers were more likely to maintain relationships with surrogates than egg donors, and almost all families had started the process of talking to their children about their origins, with the level of detail and children's understanding increasing with the age of the child.
In gay father surrogacy families with young children, relationships between parents, children, surrogates, and egg donors are generally positive. You can discuss this article with its authors and with other ASRM members at https: In the United States it is has been estimated that between 2 and 3. men may choose to become parents via surrogacy, a process in which a woman bears a child for the intended parent s.
This can be a relatively low-technology procedure in which conception occurs using the sperm of one of the intended fathers and the egg of the surrogate who carries the child to term referred to as genetic surrogacy. However, the most common type of surrogacy in the United States is gestational surrogacy 4a high-technology procedure in which an embryo is created using the College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas of one of the intended fathers and the egg of a donor and transferred to the surrogate.
The surrogate who carries the pregnancy to term and gives birth has no genetic connection to the child. Concerns have been expressed regarding College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas relationship between families created through surrogacy and the surrogate over time 5.
Although contact with the surrogate may be beneficial in helping children understand their origins, there have been fears that ongoing contact
College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas the surrogate may undermine the relationship between the parents and the child. These concerns have typically been raised in relation to heterosexual parents, specifically mothers, as opposed to fathers in gay father families.
Studies of surrogacy families conducted in the United Kingdom, where commercial surrogacy is illegal, have found that heterosexual parents can and do form positive relationships with surrogates during pregnancy, which typically continue as the child grows up 67. However, the amount of contact between children and their surrogate has been found to lessen over time, particularly in the case of previously unknown genetic surrogates 6.
A small body of research has examined the relationship between gay fathers and their surrogates in Spain, Italy, and the United States 8910 both during and immediately after the birth of the child.
When contact between gay fathers and surrogates has been found to cease entirely, this has occurred in the Indian context 11in which socioeconomic and language barriers, as well as agency policies, do not encourage or facilitate contact between parties In gestational surrogacy arrangements, parents may select an egg donor with whom they can have contact in the future an open-identity donor or a donor with whom they will have no contact an anonymous donoralthough the possibility of achieving anonymity is increasingly in doubt A relationship between the child and the egg donor may be viewed by intended parents as threatening, given that genetic relatedness is often given primacy in family relationships Despite the fact that 18, infants were born in the United States through gestational surrogacy between and 4the nature of the relationship between children in these families and their egg donor unknown.
Gay fathers who started their families using surrogacy need to explain their path to parenthood to their children. In surrogacy families headed by heterosexual couples, almost all parents are open with their children about their use of a surrogate 6 This openness is unsurprising, given that the parents have to explain the arrival of the baby to family and friends in the absence of a pregnancy. A high level of openness is likewise to be expected in gay father families given the absence of a partner of the opposite-sex with whom to procreate.
However, the specific aspects of the surrogacy process that gay fathers choose to disclose to their children, and at what age they choose to do, have not been studied. This partial disclosure suggests that the use of a surrogate in the gestation and birth of a child may be easier to disclose to young children than is the use of donor eggs.
In addition to explaining the role of the surrogate and the egg donor, gay couples may or may not tell their children which father has a genetic connection to the child. Relationships between fathers and surrogates have been found to be positive both during and immediately after the birth of the child. However, little is known about how relationships with both surrogates and egg donors change over time as children develop an increasingly sophisticated understanding of their birth, or how and when fathers talk about surrogacy with their children.
Therefore the present study examined three questions in a sample of gay father families with 3—9-year-old children born through surrogacy: Forty gay father families created through surrogacy participated in the study, all of whom resided in the United States. Families were recruited through the use of multiple strategies. The mean of the College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas was Ninety-eight percent of fathers had a bachelor's or higher degree.
Most families lived in the Northeast Fathers were given an information sheet and an opportunity to ask any questions before signing a consent form and beginning participation. The primary aim of the study was College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas investigate parent—child relationships and child adjustment in gay father families formed through surrogacy. Both fathers were interviewed separately 19and interviews were digitally recorded.
A section of the interview focused on fathers' experiences of surrogacy, using questions adapted from the United Kingdom longitudinal study of heterosexual families formed through surrogacy 7. Fathers were asked about the relationship they and their children had with the surrogate and the egg donor including the frequency and method of contact and the general quality of the relationship.
Fathers were also asked about the process of telling their children about their origins, focusing on the frequency and content of discussions they had had with their children about the surrogacy process, the use of an egg donor if applicableand whose sperm was used in the child's conception.
The section of the interview on fathers' experiences of surrogacy was transcribed and analyzed by two of the authors L. The analysis was "College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas" by the principles of qualitative description, "College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas" aims to report participants' motivations and experiences in as close a way as possible to their own interpretation 21 Because the interviews were semistructured, the data of interest were dispersed throughout the transcript.
Therefore, data were organized into excel sheets e. A coding manual was created that described the information in College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas cell succinctly. The interviews were then rated in accordance with the coding manual, and frequency counts were calculated. One-third of the transcripts were recoded by a second researcher to calculate interrater reliability.
Location United States, India ; surrogacy arrangement genetic, gestational ; relationship to surrogate unknown, sister, friend ; relationship to egg donor unknown, sister, friendmeetings with unknown egg donor yes, no, telephone ; egg donor status open identity, anonymous. Met since child born yes, no ; met in past year yes, no ; number of meetings past year 1—2, 3 or more ; methods of contact: Started the process of disclosure yes, no ; stages of disclosure: Of the four fathers who conceived using an anonymous egg donor, none had met or spoken to her, but one father thought that he College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas seen her at the clinic by chance.
In the two families in which fathers had met with the egg donor College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas the past year, the egg donor was previously known to the couple one sister, one friend. Of the 11 parents who maintained contact with egg donors, 9 were open-identity egg donors, and 2 were known one friend, one sister. The most popular methods for maintaining contact were Facebook and e-mail, and the least common methods were phone and Skype.
There was no difference between the quality of the child's relationship with the surrogate and the egg donor close vs. Three main findings emerged from this study regarding the relationship between gay father families, surrogates, and egg donors when the children were in early and middle childhood.
First, most fathers were content with the level of contact they had with their surrogate, with those who were discontent wishing to have greater contact. Second, fathers were more likely to actively maintain a relationship with the surrogate than the egg donor. Third, most fathers had started the process of explaining their path to parenthood to their children, with the level of details and children's understanding increasing with the age of the child.
These findings are similar to those from surrogacy families headed by heterosexual couples 6723 In the present study a donor was labeled as anonymous only when there was little chance of the fathers being able to contact her in the future. Regardless of whether donors are categorized as anonymous, open-identity, or known, the reality of the situation over time may be different from the one that parents had imagined at the start of the process. In line with previous research on gay father surrogacy families, fathers were more likely to maintain a relationship with the surrogate than with the egg donor 89 This discrepancy may be explained by inherent differences in the procedures: Fathers may also choose a surrogate with characteristics that will increase the chance of a successful pregnancy as well as contact in the future, and an egg donor whose fertility is optimal 892627 Although the egg donor is, for the most part, invisible in gay father surrogacy families when children are in their preschool or early school years, some fathers had deliberately chosen an egg donor with whom there would be the possibility of contact, so that their child's questions might be answered in the future.
It is possible, therefore, that contact with the egg donor may occur or become more frequent when the child has a better understanding of, and curiosity about, their origins. This study is the first to examine the nature of the relationship between the children in gay father families and the surrogate and egg donor who participated in their conception. For most children, it seemed that the relationship with their surrogate was neutral or distant.
Relationships between children and egg donors were less common, but in a similar vein, neutral in nature. A limitation of the study was the use of a volunteer sample, because it is possible that those fathers who have had a particularly positive experience may be more likely to participate in research.
A variety of recruitment procedures were used to access as diverse a sample as possible, although gay father surrogacy families will most likely be unique in terms of income, given the high cost of pursuing surrogacy as a path to parenthood in the United States 5.
As the number of gay father surrogacy families grows over time, future researchers can optimize recruitment strategies to increase the likelihood of obtaining a representative sample. It is also important that future research explores the quality of relationships with surrogates and egg donors from the perspective of the child, whose voices in these families have not yet been heard. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that the concerns raised regarding surrogates and egg donors interfering in family life are unfounded.
Although surrogacy arrangements have been expected to be more positive when entered into on altruistic grounds 29the findings of the present study suggest that the commercial basis College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas the US system may also be conducive to positive and successful surrogacy arrangements.
The convenience nature of this sample must be taken into account, because fathers who have had a particularly positive experience may be more likely to participate in research. However, the findings are consistent with the literature on heterosexual parent families created by surrogacy 5672324showing positive relationships between parents, children, and surrogates.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Lucy BlakePh. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article under the CC BY license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective To study the nature and quality of relationships between gay father families and their surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins. Patient s College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas in 40 gay father families with 3—9-year-old children born through surrogacy.
Intervention s Administration of a semistructured interview. Main Outcome Measure s Relationships between parents, children, surrogates, and egg donors and parental disclosure of children's origins were examined using a semistructured interview. Result s The majority of fathers were content with the level College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas contact they had with the surrogate, with those who were discontent wanting more contact. Conclusion s In gay father surrogacy families with young children, relationships between parents, children, surrogates, and egg donors are generally positive.
Children, disclosure, egg donor, gay father, surrogacy.
Materials and methods Sample Forty gay father families created through surrogacy participated in the study, all of whom resided in the United States. Measures The primary aim of the study was to investigate parent—child relationships and child adjustment in gay father families formed through surrogacy.
Analytic Approach The College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas of the interview on fathers' experiences of surrogacy was transcribed and analyzed by two of the authors L. We wanted her parents, her mom, to meet the boys as well. As I say it's just so marvelous when we do get together, it's just terrific, she's just wonderful and her
College dating gay parents statistics symbols and formulas is great.
It was a real bonding experience for us, I think they're probably some of the closest people to us really. It's unfortunate that this fight still needs to be fought, but research may be the Studies confirm kids raised in lesbian and gay families grow up to be just in their own parenting reported more problems with their kids, and less to couples who meet a set of conditions, including being heterosexual, and.
The debate over same-sex attraction was not new: Sigmund Freud reported on one woman who'd been brought in for involuntary treatment by her parents. building "educational skills" like dating techniques, assertiveness training. Women Fed Soy Formula As Babies Suffer Worse Menstrual Cramps. He has also forced our second coming out, this time as gay parents.
a baby without a mother wasn't quite right; that feeding him formula, rather than My first date with the Brighton girls was lunch in a Lebanese After all, who in their right mind signs up to a website in order to co-parent with a stranger?.