In Februaryforest geneticist Thierry Lamant sent me a short article he had prepared on natural vegetative reproduction in conifers, and that paper Lamant was the basis of this summary. I have modified Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants to begin to develop a table identifying species that possess various different modes of vegetative reproduction. However, Thierry is the source of most of the data presented on this page, as cited below.
Vegetative reproduction is the capacity of Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants woody plant to replicate itself as a genetically identical but physically separate plant. Such replicates may remain physically connected to the parent plant but the connection is not obligate.
The mechanisms of vegetative reproduction in conifers include
Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants, epicormic buds, and root suckers. Layering is a simple and familiar concept, essentially the same as growing a plant from a cutting: This capacity is common, although less so in conifers than in many other plants. Epicormic sprouts and suckers, though, are a more specialized form of reproduction which relies on the presence of dormant buds in plant tissue, which may be activated by plant Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants substances often called plant hormones produced in response to various triggers such as increased light availability or injury to the tree.
It is not known why epicormic buds occur in some conifers but not in others. The capacity to produce epicormic buds has important ecological implications, though.
In long-lived conifers, epicormic shoots allow a tree to relocate its branches over time as old ones die and new ones arise from epicormic buds.
In younger trees, the ability to resprout from a stump allows a tree to persist despite severe disturbances such as fire. As Ishii et al. As with the seed bank, species adapted to frequent disturbances may maintain a large bud bank. Species adapted to infrequent disturbances may maintain a relatively small bud bank, but sprouting Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants occur regularly as a mechanism of crown maintenance.
Junipers of the World: Brief versions of the descriptions are available online at Adam's website, www. Epicormic branching in Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Research Axillary meristems and the development of epicormic buds in Wollemi pine Wollemia nobilis. Oxford journal, Life sciences, Annals of Botany, vol. James Barbour, Michael H. McClellan, and Dean L. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.
Plantation Forestry in the Tropics. The role of epicormic shoot production in maintaining foliage in old Pseudotsuga menziesii trees. Canadian Journal of Botany Physiological and ecological implications of adaptive reiteration as a mechanism for crown maintenance and longevity.
Vegetative reproduction in gymnosperms. Does not contain specific citations but bibliography cites AdamsBurrows et al. The role of epicormic branches in the life history of western larch: In Ecology and management of Larix forests: Trunk reiteration promotes epiphytes and water storage in an old-growth redwood forest canopy. Crown development of coastal Pseudotsuga menziesiiincluding a conceptual "Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants" for tall conifers.
Back Site map Contact us. Edited by Christopher J. Earle About Chris Earle. Species Topics Bookstore Links Contact. Vegetative Reproduction in Conifers and Ginkgo In Februaryforest geneticist Thierry Lamant sent me a short article he had prepared on natural vegetative reproduction in conifers, and that paper Lamant was the basis of this summary.
Layering is the formation of roots from a branch in contact with the soil. Epicormic buds are dormant buds beneath a tree's bark. Epicormic buds may produce new shoots which produce new branches or new leaders, a process called reiteration epicormic branching. In some species, epicormic buds may become active after the stem has been cut off near ground level, allowing regeneration of a new from the cut stem epicormic regeneration.
Suckering is the production of an aboveground stem from a bud
Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants on a root. Agathis robusta ER Lamant Agathisother spp. Araucaria bidwillii EB Lamant Araucaria humboldtensis EB "The above-ground portion of the tree must be damaged in order for epicormic buds to give rise to sprouts" Lamant Araucariaother spp.
Athrotaxis cupressoides ER, L Lamant Athrotaxisother spp. Cryptomeria japonica ER, L Lamant Cunninghamia lanceolata ER Lamant Cupressus funebris EB "Didier Maerki has indicated to me that some Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants of Cupressus funebris at the Arboretum of Villardebelle, have produced new branches on the trunk following injury to the aerial portion of the tree, to the point of completely replacing the injured stem" Lamant Cupressusother spp.
Glyptostrobus pensilis unkn Lamant Juniperus ashei ER Lamant Juniperus deppeana ER Lamant Juniperus foetidissima ER Lamant Juniperus pinchotii ER Lamant Juniperus thurifera ER Lamant Juniperusother spp. Metasequoia glyptostroboides none Lamant Microbiota decussata unkn Lamant Neocallitropsis pancheri unkn Lamant Papuacedrus papuana unkn Lamant Platycladus orientalis L Lamant Sequoia sempervirens EB, ER Most branches on old trees are derived from epicormic sprouts Sillett and Van Pelt ; most trees are derived from stump sprouts.
Sequoiadendron giganteum EB Lamant Tetraclinis articulata ER Lamant Thuja plicata EB Ishii et al. Thujopsis dolabrata L Lamant Widdringtonia Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants ER This species' habitat is regularly burned. Epicormic regeneration is not known in W. Abies grandis EB Ishii et al. Abies lasiocarpa L I have seen this widely, mostly at alpine sites Earle Abiesother spp. Larix occidentalis EB Lanner Larixother spp.
Picea engelmannii L Earle: Picea glauca L Lamant Picea omorika L Lamant Picea orientalis L Lamant Picea rubens EB Ishii et al.
Picea sitchensis EB "Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants" et al ;
Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants many pers. Picea smithiana EB Lamant Piceaother spp. In the field epicormic sprouts is evident only after stress caused by cold or the passage of fire, but sprouts are common on cultivated plants. It is easy to reproduce Pinus canariensis by cuttings made from the sprouts.
Pinus echinata EB Lamant. Perez de la Rosa, Pinus leiophylla var. Pinus oocarpa ER Grows back readily from the stump after a fire Lamant Pinus praetermissa ER Lamant Pinus rigida EB Lamant Pinus serotina EB "Following fires which destroy all branches but Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants not kill the trees, epicormic sprouting results in entire forests of odd-looking cylindrical pond pines, the trunk thickly beset with needles, the outline of the tree a narrow cylinder meters tall and less than 1 meter in diameter from base to summit" Weakley Pinusother spp.
Pseudotsuga macrocarpa EB Produces new branches from epicormic buds if the trunks and branches have been exposed Gymnosperms asexual reproduction in plants fire Lamant Pseudotsuga menziesii EB Lifespan of the tree greatly exceeds that of branches, so almost all branches on very old trees are derived from epicormic sprouting Ishii and FordVan Pelt and Sillett As with angiosperms, the lifecycle of a gymnosperm is also characterized by alternation of generations.
In conifers such as pines, the green leafy part of the plant. The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed- producing plants fern-like vegetative morphology (the so-called "seed ferns" or pteridosperms).
Two main modes of fertilization are found in gymnosperms. Gymnosperms are seed-bearing plants known for their "naked seeds": cycle, plants alternate between a sexual phase and an asexual phase.