Anal sex is a common practice among men who have sex with men, heterosexual men and women, and transgender individuals and is a known risk factor for HIV infection and transmission.
Therefore, it is important that education on HIV prevention includes accurate information on the fluids that can transmit HIV through this type of sex. If one of these fluids is excluded from prevention messaging, it could lead a client to underestimate their Homosexuality causes hiv of HIV transmission. While there is no doubt that semen, pre-ejaculate pre-cumand blood can contribute to the risk of HIV transmission through anal sex; it seems there is less clarity among frontline service providers on whether rectal fluid should also be included
Homosexuality causes hiv this list.
This article looks at what rectal fluid is, whether or not it can contain and transmit HIV, and the implications for prevention education. Rectal fluid is the mucus that lines the rectum. Mucus is a slippery secretion produced by certain parts of our body known as the mucous membranes.
These membranes are located at the entrances into the and line the internal passages of many of our organs, including the gastrointestinal tract mouth, intestines and rectumthe vagina and cervix, and the foreskin and urethra. Mucus has several functions. major function is to protect the mucous membranes from germs bacteria and viruses.
Mucus also contains substances that can — to some extent — kill germs. For some membranes, mucus also acts as a lubricant that prevents friction and tearing of the mucous membrane tissue when objects pass through them. For example, mucus in the vagina reduces friction during sexual intercourse and mucus in the gastrointestinal tract including the rectum facilitates the passage of food and feces.
Mucus in the rectum also helps reduce friction during anal intercourse. This is because these membranes are rich in immune cells, which Homosexuality causes hiv the cells that HIV likes to infect and replicate within. As a result, mucus produced by an HIV-positive person can contain HIV although virus can be present in varying amountswhich can potentially be transmitted to someone else.
The mucous membranes of the rectum, and the mucus they produce Homosexuality causes hiv fluidare no exception. Why might rectal fluid contain more HIV than other bodily fluids? The high concentration of immune cells means that the majority of HIV replication in someone with HIV may be happening in the gastrointestinal tract, including the rectum.
Research show that this type of anal sex can carry a significant risk of HIV transmission. Homosexuality causes hiv
In fact, the average risk of HIV infection through a single act of condomless insertive anal sex with an HIV-positive partner is slightly higher than through vaginal sex but much lower than if the HIV-negative person takes the receptive role during anal sex.
Rectal fluid undoubtedly contributes to the risk of HIV transmission through anal sex where the insertive partner is HIV negative.
Homosexuality causes hiv know that for HIV transmission to be possible, a fluid that contains HIV must come into contact with specific parts of the body that are vulnerable to HIV infection.
Both the urethra and foreskin are vulnerable to HIV infection. Rectal fluid may not be the only fluid involved in the risk of HIV transmission during this type of sex. If the lining of the rectum has been damaged in some way, blood may also be present in the rectum. In such circumstances, blood containing HIV can come into contact with the foreskin and urethra and also contribute to the risk of HIV transmission. However, rectal fluid is always present in the rectum unlike blood and, therefore, likely plays a greater role in the risk of HIV transmission.
Several strategies can reduce the risk of HIV transmission through Homosexuality causes hiv sex where the insertive partner is HIV-negativeincluding condoms, post-exposure prophylaxis PEPpre-exposure prophylaxis PrEPantiretroviral therapy ARTand potentially penile circumcision.
Circumcision the removal of Homosexuality causes hiv foreskin of someone who is HIV negative may be able to reduce the risk of them becoming infected through insertive anal sex with an HIV-positive partner. Some research suggests circumcision can reduce the risk for HIV-negative gay men who primarily take the insertive role during anal sex. However, the extent of the reduction in transmission of HIV transmission, if any, is unclear and requires further Although the risk of HIV transmission is significantly lowered when the viral load is undetectable in the blood, the risk may not be eliminated.
Undetectable does not mean that is Homosexuality causes hiv virus, only that the amount of virus is below the limits that tests can detect. Therefore, HIV transmission may still be possible because there is still virus present. Also, it is possible for people who have Homosexuality causes hiv undetectable viral load in the blood to sometimes have detectable although lowered levels of virus in their rectal fluid.
The exact risk of HIV transmission through anal sex where the HIV-negative person is the insertive partner when the blood viral load of the partner is undetectable is not known and Homosexuality causes hiv not been well studied.
However, a preliminary analysis of an ongoing study observed that, when the blood viral load was undetectable, no HIV transmissions occurred among stable serodiscordant gay male couples who engaged in approximately 11, condomless anal sex acts where the HIV-negative person was the insertive partner.
Therefore, although this does not mean the risk is zero, it does show that ART definitely reduces the risk of HIV transmission through this type of anal sex; ongoing analysis from this study will show us more clearly exactly how large this reduction is.
Factors that cause inflammation in the rectum of a person with HIV may increase the viral load in the rectal fluid but not in the blood and subsequently increase the risk of HIV transmission to an HIV-negative insertive partner.
Promisingly, a recent study found that rectal gonorrhea and chlamydia did not increase the rectal fluid viral load among a small group of people with HIV on ART. It is important that HIV prevention messaging includes rectal fluid as one of the fluids that can contain and transmit HIV. If rectal fluid is excluded, it could lead an HIV-negative person who is the insertive partner during anal sex to underestimate their risk of HIV infection; or a person with HIV who is the receptive partner during anal sex to underestimate their risk of transmitting HIV.
Sex from A-Z Cards: Canadians' awareness, knowledge and attitudes related to sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections: Risk of sexual transmission of HIV with antiretroviral therapy, suppressed viral load and condom use.
A mile in our moccasins [video] — HIV education and awareness through lived experiences and an Indigenous lens. Eliminating hepatitis C among people who use drugs: How do I tell my kids? Production of this Web site has been made possible through a Homosexuality causes hiv contribution from the Public Health Agency of Canada. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: Please note that some content on this website contains language, information and images Homosexuality causes hiv to sexuality and drug use, and may not be intended for people of all ages.
CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are written and reviewed by health experts for content accuracy. Jump to Navigation Jump "Homosexuality causes hiv" Content. Hepatitis C Subscriptions Become a Member. Anal sex, rectal fluid, and HIV transmission.
Current Issue Back Issues Subscribe. What is rectal fluid? Does rectal fluid contain HIV? Implications for HIV transmission and prevention Anal sex is a common practice among men who have sex with men, heterosexual men and women, and transgender individuals and is a known risk factor for HIV infection and transmission. Key messages It is important that HIV prevention messaging includes rectal fluid as one of the fluids that can contain and transmit HIV. Inflammation in the rectum, caused by STIs or tearing, may increase the amount of virus in the rectal
Homosexuality causes hiv and increase the risk of HIV transmission.
Minimizing rectal inflammation through the use of lubricants lubes and management of STIs regular STI testing and, if needed, treatment for STIs may prevent increases in rectal fluid viral load. Lowering the viral load in the blood and rectal fluid through successful antiretroviral treatment can substantially decrease the risk of HIV transmission. Condoms, in combination with lube, are highly effective in preventing the risk of Homosexuality causes hiv transmission if used consistently and "Homosexuality causes hiv." Condoms can also significantly reduce the risk of STI transmission.
Post-exposure prophylaxis and pre-exposure prophylaxis are both highly effective options for HIV-negative people to reduce their risk of HIV infection. PEP
Homosexuality causes hiv to be accessed as soon as possible, but Homosexuality causes hiv 72 hours, after an exposure and taken daily for 28 days. PrEP Homosexuality causes hiv to be taken daily, on an ongoing basis.
Adherence to daily pill-taking is "Homosexuality causes hiv" for both to be effective. Penile circumcision may reduce the risk of HIV infection for HIV-negative gay men who primarily engage in insertive anal sex, but it is Homosexuality causes hiv how much it reduces HIV transmission risk.
Journal of Infectious Diseases. Higher concentration of HIV RNA in rectal mucosa secretions than in blood
Homosexuality causes hiv seminal plasma, among men who have sex with men, independent of antiretroviral therapy.
The anatomical basis of intestinal immunity. Journal of Experimental Medicine.
Anal sex practices in heterosexual and male Homosexuality causes hiv populations: Journal of Sex Research. HIV transmission risk through anal intercourse: International Journal of Epidemiology. Sexual Behavior in the United States: Journal of Sexual Medicine.
Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology.
HIV serosorting among men who have Homosexuality causes hiv with men: Weller S, Davis K. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews Online.
Behavioral impact, acceptability, and HIV incidence among homosexual men with access to chemoprophylaxis for HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men.
New England Journal
Homosexuality causes hiv Medicine. Male circumcision for prevention of homosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Determinants of HIV-1 transmission in men who have sex with men: News Canadians' awareness, knowledge and attitudes related to sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections: Information on HIV transmission. Homosexuality causes hiv human immunodeficiency virus infection presumed to have occurred via female homosexual contact.
The HIV continues to disproportionately impact gay and bisexual men, transgender women, youth and communities of color. HIV can affect anyone regardless of sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, gender or age. However, certain groups are at higher risk for HIV and.
It's not very politically correct to mean it, but HIV remains a moment in the gay community. In to be sure, it can be argued that HIV is a gay disease.
As gay and bisexual men were dropping downright in the mids, political strategists realized they had to make a preference. Acknowledge that the epidemic was disproportionately impacting gay and bisexual men — a despised minority in the U. The political best was to re-cast the threat of the epidemic.
They could no longer paint the wide-ranging as the backwash of the topless lives of gay and bisexual men. The de-gaying was complete. When the right wing claims HIV was a gay disease, gay leaders recoiled in rage. In a big picture snapshot that is correct. But in the U. The virus is safely encamped in the bodies of men who have sex with other men a term of epidemiology coined by scientists, which makes trans women — thoroughly affected by HIV — invisible in the epidemic.
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The same area is known for having the most genetic diversity in HIV strains in the world, reflecting the number of different times SIV was passed to humans. This supports the hunter theory because every time SIV passed from a chimpanzee to a human, it would have developed in a slightly different way within the human body, and produced a slightly different strain.
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- HIV/AIDS | Gay and Bisexual Men's Health | CDC
- The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately impact gay and bisexual men, transgender women, youth and communities of color. Information on HIV transmission. of human immunodeficiency virus infection presumed to have occurred via female homosexual contact.
- It is caused by a virus known as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). HIV may be transmitted through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual, vaginal, anal.
- HIV and the LGBTQ Community | Human Rights Campaign
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