Did you see it? As the face started to turn away from you, your brain did… somethingand then you were seeing a normal frontwards-facing mask again. Some people get glitchier glitches than others; a few seem almost immune. Studies find schizophrenics and autistic people to be consistently less glitchy than Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation rest of us. I wanted to replicate this result myself.
So a few months ago, when I surveyed readers of my blog, I included some questions about perceptual illusions including a static version of the hollow mask. I got five thousand responses, including a few from schizophrenic and autistic readers. Sure enough, the effect was there. Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation deeper, I found a few other anomalies on illusion perception.
Most were small and inconsistent. But one stood out: These results are very tentative, and need replication. But for now, it sure looks like a signal. A few days ago, trans blogger Zinnia Jones asked me if there might be any neurochemical reason trans people dissociate so much. And in transgender people.
Intuitively this makes sense. We aim to bridge psychosocial and biological levels of explanation. We can say that someone is depressed because they broke up with their boyfriend, but also because they have decreased synaptogenesis in their hippocampus. Causation gets tricky, and this is a philosophical minefield for sure, but overall these two levels should be complementary rather than competitive.
Practically all searches for the biological basis of dissociation end up at the NMDA glutamate receptor, one of the many neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Drugs that block NMDA receptors cause dissociation. The most famous dissociative anaesthetic, ketamine, is an NMDA antagonist. So is DXM, a recreational drug that causes dissociation in abusers.
The only other category they list are kappa opioid agonists, and kappa opioid agonism probably — you guessed it — antagonize NMDA. If we take this result seriously, every substance we know of that causes dissociation is an NMDA antagonist in some way. Does anything improve NMDA function — an effect we might expect to alleviate dissociation?
So transgender people dissociate a lot, a state usually associated with hypofunctioning NMDA receptors. And trans women get better when they take estrogen, a hormone that improves NMDA function.
Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation what does this have Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation do with those optical illusions?
In a hierarchical cortical system in which representations become more abstract with increasing distance from the primary input, higher levels of the hierarchy specify top-down predictions through NMDA receptor signaling and any mismatches "Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation" expectancy and experience are conveyed upward through the hierarchy via rapid AMPA and GABA signaling.
When you see a hollow mask, the brute facts of how the mask looks are your bottom-up sensory evidence. Given the strength of the prior, the prior wins, and your brain interprets the mask as a normal face. Then it just sticks with the bottom-up sensory evidence showing that the mask is hollow.
Schizophrenia and autism both probably involve decreased NMDA function in different ways. Ketamine seems to replicate the symptoms of schizophrenia pretty well and is commonly used as a model for the disorder. From this we would predict that estrogen would help treat schizophrenia and autism. Women are known to sometimes get schizophrenia triggered by menopause when their estrogen levels decrease.
We might also predict that estrogen would increase glitching on the hollow mask. Since women have more estrogen, that looks good for the theory. Transgender people have higher rates of autism and schizophrenia. The Atlantic actually had a good article about this recently: My survey broadly confirms these numbers.
If this is right, we end up with this rich set of connections between schizophrenics, autistics, ketamine, dissociative experiences, estrogen, gender identity, and the hollow mask. Anything that decreases NMDA function — schizophrenia, autism, ketamine — will potentially cause dissociative experiences and decreased glitching on the mask illusion.
Estrogen will improve NMDA function, treat dissociative experiences, and bring back hollow-mask glitching. That would explain the autism and schizophrenia connections. It would explain the hollow mask numbers. It would explain the dissociation. It would explain why estrogen helps the "Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation." And it would explain a lot of connections between all of these different conditions and factors.
First, the research into NMDA receptors is too interesting. On the one hand, explaining everything sounds sort of good. On the other hand, it also sounds like what would happen if a field was getting kind of overhyped and slipping into methodology loose enough to prove anything it wanted.
A theory that can explain absolutely everything should always cause suspicion. Although the transgender results were unusually strong, I did get mildly statistically significant results on about half of the thirty-or-so things I looked at, including seemingly-unrelated items like political affiliation.
Some might argue that this means something is wrong "Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation" my survey. Third, I included a second illusion I asked about on the survey, the Spinning Dancer. It also had an odd response pattern among transgender people. Fourth, all this predicts that ketamine will cause reduced glitching on the Hollow Mask.
On the other hand, chronic marijuana use does prevent mask glitching, which might be because of marijuana causing NMDA hypofunction over time, which I guess is a point in favor of the chronicity theory. Fifth, although trans women dissociate less when they take estrogen, trans men dissociate less when they take testosterone. If that makes dissociation worse — and from the psychosocial perspective it probably should — then that would be a strike against this theory.
Still, somebody could question the relevance of worrying about these two conditions in particular. I hope some of this can be sorted out in the near future.
A very tentative second step would be to investigate whether chronic use of the supplements that improve NMDA function in schizophrenia — like glycined-serineand especially sarcosine — can augment estrogen in improving gender dysphoria. Remember to consult your doctor before trying any weird supplements since they may cause unintended side effects, like becoming a
Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation. It could also be worth trying to understand more explicitly why gender identity and NMDA should be linked.
This post is long enough already, but I might write more on this in the future. It would be a shame if not. Heinlein flattered young sci-fi readers as an emergent elite of the future as far back as his keynote address of the first sci-fi convention in My vague impression is that Heinlein saw solipsism as central Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation other traits as side effects.
It has been on the decline indeed! As against solipsism it is to be said, in the first place, that it is psychologically impossible to believe, and is rejected in fact even by those who mean to accept it. I once received a letter from an eminent logician, Mrs.
Christine Ladd-Franklin, saying that she was a solipsist, and was surprised that there were no others. Coming from a logician and a solipsist, her surprise surprised me. I also hate writing papers with a vengeance. You can publish anything. You just say that it is a convenience sample of a population enriched for transgender and autism. If you wanted to study transgender and autism, it would be a great resource.
Except that you seem to have approached this project intending to study optical Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation, so that it turns out to tell us about transgender and autism is suspicious.
And they get better when they take estrogen, a hormone that improves NMDA function. Is estrogen a common treatment for transgender people who are biologically female but actually are male?
Alternatively, are such people much less common in the general population in this surveysuch that assuming that most transgender people Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation women is mostly accurate? I knew a transman who, back when he still identified as female, had been prescribed some kind of estrogen medication to treat his unusually low estrogen levels. No idea "Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation" it gave him dissociative effects, since he was never prone to dissociation to begin with, but it unsurprisingly made his dysphoria significantly worse than it had been before.
She says also, however, that it gave her horrible depression. She is her preferred pronoun.
It seems to me that a key difference between the spinning dancer and hollow mask illusions would be that there is no strong prior for the dancer spinning clockwise vs counter-clockwise the way there would be for a face being inside-out vs not and that this might explain the weaker signal.
I might even expect them to anti correlate. For the mask, there is a correct way to see it it actually is inverted half the timeand there is a statically likely way to see it real faces are almost never inverted.
Both are objective and lean pretty far one way. Likewise, in terms of stats, people turn both right and left pretty frequently. Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation dancer is made to have two systems both toward the center of their tendency and ambiguous, mask is made to have two systems at opposite extremes.
Schizophrenics have social apophenia eg, conspiracieswhile autists have the opposite. Thus while it is plausible that autistic weakened face detection leads to the slightly elevated rates of autists seeing through the mask illusion, the high rate of schizophrenics seeing through it is probably for a different
Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation. If not a common reason, not both NMDA.
Seems to me that the spinning face actually an illusion and the spinning dancer is merely an ambiguous stimulus. When you see the face side on you know there can only be one correct answer. RICHARD WISEMAN chooses his ten favourite optical illusions.
In this classic illusion, the two tabletops look completely different shapes but are actually identical Also, the legs induce a sense of perspective, causing Optical illusions different perspectives on sexual orientation back of the.
Gascoigne is charged with sexual assault after incident on train from. PDF | Visual illusions have been used to explore implicit perception in neglect. Previous studies Percentage of " top longer " (upright orientation) and " bottom longer ". Percentage of.
Other research regarding illusion perception in neglect. effects on the Ponzo perception demonstrated no gender. Yet, many illusions, mostly described by German authors at the same time on “ orientation profiles” (describing how the strength of an illusion varies shape despite the changing perspectives produced by eye movements. while the sexual reproduction mode is primordial (thus, a dolphin is not a fish).
Which line is longer? In fact, if you look closely and carefully, you can probably see that both lines are the same length. Such environments are made mostly of straight lines and right angles.
Then, it alters our perception of their height to adjust for perceived space. I wonder how this relates to the development of perspective in European art in the Renaissance period. Were people shifting from living in round houses to square ones?
Archaeologically, that kind of shift from ad hoc round houses to square houses arranged in blocks often accompanies increasing social stratification, which is what you'd expect in Europe at that time. Sociological Images encourages people to exercise and develop their sociological imaginations with discussions of compelling visuals that span the breadth of sociological inquiry.
Did you see it? As the dignity started to bend away from you, your brain did… something , and then you were seeing a regular frontwards-facing mask repeatedly. Some people watch glitchier glitches than others; a some seem almost safe. Studies find schizophrenics and autistic society to be unswervingly less glitchy than the rest of us.
I wanted to replicate that result myself. So a few months ago, when I surveyed readers of my blog, I included some questions about perceptual illusions including a unchanging version of the hollow mask.
I got five million responses, including a few from schizophrenic and autistic readers. Sure enough, the effect was there. Looking deeper, I found a some other anomalies on illusion perception. Ultimate were small and inconsistent. But joke stood out: These results are jolly tentative, and claim replication.
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As a psychiatrist, is it your belief that the m-to-f mental state is at least an order of magnitude more common than the reverse? In probably every tool large companies are providing for their leaders, there will be elements that can serve a purpose in reducing bias or the effects thereof. My argument is not that everyone who gets in such a situation ends up doing it, but that it happens.
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