Anal intercourse is a highly efficient mode of HIV transmission. Nevertheless, there is evidence Black girl anul suggest that anal intercourse is also widely practiced by women in the US 1 — 4. Given that anal intercourse is associated with higher rates of heterosexual HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse 10 — 13women who engage in unprotected anal intercourse with sexual partners of unknown or seropositive status may be at greater risk for acquiring HIV than women who do not practice anal intercourse or who use protection while Black girl anul so.
Additionally, Halperin 1 found that women who engaged in anal intercourse were less likely to use condoms during anal intercourse than during vaginal intercourse.
Most studies of heterosexual HIV transmission fail to distinguish between vaginal and Black girl anul intercourse in their assessments of coital acts, thus continuing to overlook anal intercourse as a potential source of HIV transmission. This oversight may be due to cultural taboos surrounding anal intercourse, including its association with Black girl anul and its perceived lack of hygiene 1.
A number of researchers have already pointed to the need for increased attention to anal intercourse as an understudied source of HIV transmission from seropositive men to their seronegative female partners 136 A topic that has received even scarcer attention is the circumstances under which women engage in anal intercourse.
Our qualitative study was part of a larger study on rectal microbicide Black girl anul among men who have sex with men MSM and women who practice anal intercourse. The present analysis comes Black girl anul 28 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with women with a recent history of unprotected anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or status unknown partner. Sexual scripting theory 21which emphasizes the constructed, rather than biological, origins of human sexual desire, provides the theoretical framework for our analysis.
According to Simon and Gagnon 21in choosing to practice certain sexual behaviors over others, individuals are guided by cultural scenarios that proscribe Black girl anul courses of action. These social scripts are so culturally pervasive that even deviations from the script--as heterosexual Black girl anul intercourse is often perceived to be--are still largely confined to and defined by the prevailing cultural scenarios p.
In contemporary American sexual culture, the predominant sexual script is one of male pursuit and female acquiescence The data for our analysis were collected at a community clinic in the Eastern US [clinic name and location to be specified in the final manuscript] as part of a study of rectal microbicide acceptability in The study design and procedures were approved by the appropriate institutional review boards.
Women were recruited through flyers; palm cards; outreach at community based organizations, colleges, and at community events; Internet and print media advertising; referrals through other studies or staff at the community clinic; and word of mouth.
Women were initially screened for eligibility over the phone and were invited to participate in the study if they were female; 18 years of age or older; HIV-negative; reported having unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the prior year with a man of unknown or seropositive status; had not participated in another research protocol within the past year; and were comfortable with spoken English. Eligible and interested participants reported to the clinic for a one-time, face-to-face meeting with a Black girl anul interviewer.
Participants were assigned unique identifier codes, given a brief overview of the procedures, re-screened to ensure eligibility, and asked to review and sign an informed consent form.
The interview guide consisted of open-ended questions and follow-up probes developed by the co-investigators to assess the psychological, social, and cultural factors associated with anal sex, as per the study objectives. First, the interviewer Black girl anul to the participants that the interview would focus on penile-anal intercourse.
To elicit responses, the interviewer first asked participants open-ended questions such as: The interviewer then followed up with more specific probe questions, when appropriate.